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Validation Information: FFQ (Allergens during pregnancy)

Venter 2006

Reliability and validity of a maternal food frequency questionnaire designed to estimate consumption of common food allergens

Background: Maternal food intake during pregnancy may influence the development of food hypersensitivity (FHS) in the child. A food frequency questionnaire estimating the frequency with which some of the mains food allergens are consumed was designed and validated.

Materials and methods: Pregnant women were recruited at the ante-natal clinic of St. Mary's Hospital, Isle of Wight, UK. A food frequency questionnaire was developed and validated by comparing responses to information recorded in 7 days food diaries. The reliability of the food frequency questionnaire was evaluated by asking women to complete the questionnaire on two separate occasions at 30 and 36 weeks gestation.

Results: Fifty-seven women completed the validity study and 91 women completed the reliability study. For both validity and reliability, questions with dichotomous response categories showed the highest level of agreement. Frequency of intake of foods commonly ‘hidden’ in foods produced the lowest validity and reliability scores. In the validity study responses to the food frequency questionnaire identically matched information recorded in the food diaries 80% of the time, on average. In the reliability study, responses were identical on both questionnaires 85% of the time on average.

Conclusion: In this study a food frequency questionnaire estimating the frequency with which some of the main food allergens are consumed during pregnancy was designed and validated. This food frequency questionnaire could be used in future studies to assess the role of maternal food intake in the development of FHS in the infant.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Food Groups
Tool Type
Food Frequency Questionnaire
Timeframe Tool Measures info
9 Months (During pregnancy)
Portion Size Measures info
Not reported
Reporting Method info
Usual; Retrospective
Format info
Supplements Measured
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Isle of Wight
Associated Nutrient Database
Comparator Validated Against
Food Diary Estimated


Sample Size
Age of Population

Range: 20-44 years

Female Only
Other Notable Characteristics
Pregnant Women

Total number of nutrients validated: 0 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Macronutrients: 0
  • Micronutrients: 0
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Estimated Food Diary Adults Female Only Fruit and Vegetables (% eaten ≥5 portions)

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Venter C, Higgins B, Grundy J, Clayton CB, Gant C, Dean T. Reliability and validity of a maternal food frequency questionnaire designed to estimate consumption of common food allergens. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics. 2006 Apr 1;19(2):129-38.