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Validation Information: 48h Recall

McNaughton (Both days) 2005

Comparability of dietary patterns assessed by multiple dietary assessment methods: results from the 1946 British Birth Cohort

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of dietary patterns assessed through the use of a dietary recall and a 5-day food diary.

Design: Participants (n=2265) of a longitudinal study of health and development completed 48-h dietary recall at interview, followed by a 5-day food diary and with the 24h immediately preceding the interview analysed separately as a 24-h recall. Mean intakes of foods and nutrients were calculated and dietary patterns were assessed using exploratory factor analysis, using the method of principal components. Paired t-tests and correlation coefficients were used to compare the three dietary assessment methods.

Results: Five distinct dietary patterns were identified using the food diary and the 48-h recall but were less consistent on the 24-h recall. Correlations between factor scores on the 48-h recall and the food diary (= 0.13–0.67) were higher than those between the 24-h recall and food diary (r = -0.01–0.59). The recall methods were effective at ranking subjects according to food and nutrient intakes, with the 48-h recall and food diary showing higher correlations in both males and females.

Conclusions: This study indicates that a 48-h recall effectively characterises dietary patterns in British adults when compared to a food diary and ranks participants appropriately with respect to most nutrients and foods and is superior to a single 24-h recall. These results have implications for longitudinal studies where maximising response rates to repeat dietary assessment tools is essential.

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Validation Information

McNaughton (Both days)
Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Full Nutrient, Food Groups
Tool Type
48 Hour Recall
Timeframe Tool Measures info
2 Days
Portion Size Measures info
Household measures.
Reporting Method info
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not Reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Associated Nutrient Database
McCance & Widdowson's The Composition of Foods 4th edition and supplements
Comparator Validated Against
Food Diary Estimated


Sample Size
1116 (Male), 1149 (Female)
Age of Population

Range: 43 years

Male Only, Female Only
Other Notable Characteristics
The data reported in the validation study relates to the data collected in the original longitudinal study in 1989.

Total number of nutrients validated: 15 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Energy
  • Macronutrients: 4
  • Micronutrients: 10
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Estimated Food Diary Adults Male Only Energy (kcal) -46 627 0.56 (S) -1301 1209
Protein (g) -2 24 0.48 (S) -50 47
Fat (g) -0.7 35 0.51 (S) -71 69
Carbohydrates (g) -5 66 0.62 (S) -145 134
Calcium (mg) -12.9 315.2 0.55 (S) -643.3 617.5
Iron (mg) 0.3 4.4 0.55 (S) -8.4 9.0
Folate (µg) -6.6 98.7 0.57 (S) -203.9 190.7
Vitamin B12 (µg) -0.1 8.1 0.29 (S) -16.3 16.2
Vitamin C (mg) -1.5 43.3 0.54 (S) -88.1 85.1
Estimated Food Diary Adults Female Only Energy (kcal) -121 472 0.57 (S) -1065 823
Protein (g) -3 19 0.47 (S) -40 34
Fat (g) -4 27 0.55 (S) -59 50
Carbohydrates (g) -16 52 0.65 (S) -120 88
Calcium (mg) -44.2 243.5 0.65 (S) -531.3 442.9
Iron (mg) -0.6 3.7 0.58 (S) -8.0 6.7
Folate (µg) -12.4 66.9 0.62 (S) -146.1 121.3
Vitamin B12 (µg) -0.4 7.1 0.34 (S) -14.6 13.8
Vitamin C (mg) -3.9 38.9 0.53 (S) -81.8 74.0

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

McNaughton SA, Mishra GD, Bramwell G, Paul AA, Wadsworth ME. Comparability of dietary patterns assessed by multiple dietary assessment methods: results from the 1946 British Birth Cohort. European journal of clinical nutrition. 2005 Mar 1;59(3):341-52.