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Validation Information: Eat and Track (EaT)

Wellard-Cole 2019

Relative Validity of the Eat and Track (EaT) Smartphone App for Collection of Dietary Intake Data in 18-to-30-Year Olds

Background: Smartphone dietary assessment apps can be acceptable and valid data collection methods but have predominantly been validated in highly educated women, and none specifically measured eating-out habits in young adults.

Methods: Participants recorded their food and beverage consumption for three days using the Eat and Track (EaT) app, and intakes were compared with three dietitian-administered 24-h recall interviews matched to the same days as the reference method. Wilcoxon signed-rank or t-tests, correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots assessed agreement between the two methods for energy and percentage energy from nutrients (%E).

Results: One hundred and eighty nine of 216 participants (54% females, 60% resided in higher socioeconomic areas, 49% university-educated) completed the study. There were significant differences in median energy intake between methods (p < 0.001), but the EaT app had acceptable agreement for most nutrient densities at the group level. Correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.56 (%E fat) to 0.82 (%E sugars), and between 85% and 94% of participants were cross-classified into the same or adjacent quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement but no obvious biases for nutrient densities except carbohydrate in males.

Conclusions: The EaT app can be used to assess group nutrient densities in a general population of 18-to-30-year olds.

Web Link

Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Energy, Macronutrient
Tool Type
24 Hour Recall
Timeframe Tool Measures info
3 Day
Portion Size Measures info
Participants can search for food manually or determine the portion size by using pictures
Reporting Method info
Retrospective; Prospective
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not Reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Sydney, Australia
Associated Nutrient Database
Australian nutrition composition databases
Comparator Validated Against
24hr Recall


Sample Size
189 (Adults)
Age of Population

Range: 18-30 years

Other Notable Characteristics
The participants were 18-30 years old children in Australia.

Total number of nutrients validated: 6 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Energy
  • Macronutrients: 6
  • Micronutrients: 1
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
24hr Recall Adults Both Energy (kcal) -210 565 0.67 (P) 50 4 -1316 898
Energy (kJ) -878 2363 0.67 (P) 50 4 -5510 3755

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Wellard-Cole L, Chen J, Davies A, Wong A, Huynh S, Rangan A, et al. Relative Validity of the Eat and Track (EaT) Smartphone App for Collection of Dietary Intake Data in 18-to-30-Year Olds. Nutrients. 2019;11(3):14.