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Validation Information: Day in the Life Questionnaire (DILQ)

Edmunds 2002

Development and validation of the Day in the Life Questionnaire (DILQ) as a measure of fruit and vegetable questionnaire for 7–9 year olds

The Day in the Life Questionnaire (DILQ) was developed as a supervised classroom exercise to measure children's consumption of fruit and vegetables. The DILQ uses words and pictures to encourage the child to recall and describe a range of activities from the previous day, including their entire food intake. This study tested the validity and reliability of the DILQ for children aged 7-9 years (n = 255) in four English schools. Reliability, validity and sensitivity to change were assessed through repeated rounds of data collection. Comparisons were made of observations during school breaks and classroom completion of the DILQ. Children enjoyed completing the DILQ and teachers thought it appropriate for the age group. The questionnaire performed either well or acceptably on all validity, reliability and sensitivity tests. The DILQ can be recommended as a method of collecting data for fruit and vegetable consumption from children aged 7-9 in the classroom. The validation study included comparison of schools with and without 'fruit only' breaktime policies, and sensitivity to a brief intervention in which free fruit was distributed at morning break. The results suggest that it would be a sensitive measure for descriptive studies, before and after studies and controlled trials.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Food Groups
Tool Type
24 Hour Recall
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 Day
Portion Size Measures info
No attempt was made to estimate portion size.
Reporting Method info
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not Reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Associated Nutrient Database
Not reported
Comparator Validated Against


Sample Size
Age of Population

Range: 7-9 years

Other Notable Characteristics
Population represented different school environments and socio-economic catchment areas (2 primary schools were city-based and 2 were village-based)

Total number of nutrients validated: 0 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Macronutrients: 0
  • Micronutrients: 0
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Direct Observation Children Both Fruit and Vegetables (count) 0.1 0.54 68.5 2
Fruit and Vegetables (count) 0.4 0.576 74 2

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Edmunds LD, Ziebland S. Development and validation of the Day in the Life Questionnaire (DILQ) as a measure of fruit and vegetable questionnaire for 7–9 year olds. Health Education Research. 2002 Apr 1;17(2):211-20.