Tool Library Tool Information
Validation Information: FFQ (Japan)
Validation of Energy and Nutrition Intake in Japanese Elderly Individuals Estimated Based on a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire Compared against a 7-day Dietary Record: The Kyoto-Kameoka Study
To determine the association between geriatric disorders and dietary intake, validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for elderly individuals is needed. We compared energy and nutrient intakes derived from dietary records (DR) and FFQ in an elderly population and compared the data against results from middle-aged individuals (30–68 years) from a previous study. Current participants included 65 women and 78 men (65–88 years) who completed FFQ and 7-day DR in a subpopulation of the Kyoto-Kameoka study. Our FFQ was created for middle-aged individuals. To validate the FFQ, we investigated equivalent precision by comparing the correlation coefficients between the present and previous study. Median correlations for energy and nutrient intake between the DR and FFQ in the current and previous studies were 0.24 and 0.30 (p = 0.329) in women and 0.24 and 0.28 (p = 0.399) in men, respectively. The median ratio of FFQ to DR for these intakes were also similar. The accuracy and precision of the FFQ for energy and nutrient intake in elderly individuals did not differ compared with previous findings in a middle-aged population. A validation study evaluating energy and nutrient intake using recovery biomarkers is further needed.
Total number of nutrients validated: 22
Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:
- Saturated Fat
- Mono-unsaturated Fat
- Poly-unsaturated Fat
- Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
- Folic Acid
- Vitamin B12
- Vitamin C
- Fruit & Vegetables
- Urinary Nitrogen
To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.
- Macronutrients: 8
- Micronutrients: 14
|Comparator||Lifestage||Sex||Nutrient Measured||Mean Difference||Standard Deviation||Correlation Coefficient||Cohen's Kappa Coefficient||Percentage Agreement||Percentage Agreement Categories||Lower Limits of Agreement||Upper Limits of Agreement|
|7-day Dietary Record||Elderly||Female Only||Energy (kcal)||-227||282||0.37 (S)||-791||337|
|Protein (g)||-16.5||12||0.30 (S)||-40.5||7.5|
|Fat (g)||0.7||7||0.22 (S)||-13.3||14.7|
|Saturated Fat (g)||-1||3.3||0.35 (S)||-7.6||5.6|
|MUFA (g)||3.4||5.6||0.12 (S)||-7.8||14.6|
|PUFA (g)||4.7||4.6||0.05 (S)||-4.5||13.9|
|Carbohydrate (g)||-40||47||0.45 (S)||-134||54|
|Calcium (mg)||15||165||0.33 (S)||-315||345|
|Iron (mg)||-1.2||2.1||0.50 (S)||-5.4||3|
|7-day Dietary Record||Adults and Elderly||Male Only||Energy (kcal)||-207||414||0.36 (S)||-1035||621|
|Protein (g)||-20.2||2||0.22 (S)||-24.2||-16.2|
|Fat (g)||-5.4||8||0.38 (S)||-21.4||10.6|
|Saturated Fat (g)||-2.2||5||0.35 (S)||-12.2||7.8|
|MUFA (g)||1.3||6.1||0.12 (S)||-10.9||13.5|
|PUFA (g)||3.5||4.6||0.05 (S)||-5.7||12.7|
|Carbohydrate (g)||-21||8.4||0.57 (S)||-37.8||-4.2|
|Calcium (mg)||12||183||0.21 (S)||-354||378|
|Iron (mg)||-1.7||1.9||0.38 (S)||-5.5||2.1|
|Folate (µg)||8||106||0.29 (S)||-204||220|
|Folate (µg)||-18||100||0.21 (S)||-218||182|
|Vitamin C (mg)||-22||52||0.43 (S)||-126||82|
|Vitamin C (mg)||-25||55||0.24 (S)||-135||85|
Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.
For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies
All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.
- # Adjusted
- † Energy adjusted.
- ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
- ^ Adjacent included.
- ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
- (w) = Weighted.
Vilayannur R, Puri V, Anantheswaran R. Size and shape effect on nonuniformity of temperature and moisture distributions in microwave heated food materials: Part I simulation. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 1998;21(3):209-33.