Tool Library Tool Information
Validation Information: FFQ (India)
The Evaluation and Use of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Among the Population in Trivandrum, South Kerala, India
Dietary record tools such as food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and food diaries (FD) are the most commonly used choices for assessing dietary intakes in most large-scale epidemiological studies. The authors developed a self-administered 360-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess dietary intakes amongst a population-based cohort in South Kerala. In the validation study (n = 460), the data were collected using FFQs that were administered on three different occasions which were then compared to 7-day food records. The intake of foods and nutrients was higher as determined by the FFQ than that assessed using food records. Spearman correlations for macro-nutrients ranged from 0.72 for protein to 0.61 for carbohydrates and for micronutrients, from 0.71 for vitamin B6 to 0.34 for magnesium. The correlation was improved with energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. On average, the exact agreement for the macronutrients ranged from 48.2% to 57.1%, and that for micronutrients ranged from 66.7% to 41.9%, with the median percentage of 49.58%. The authors conclude that the FFQ has an acceptable reproducibility, however, there was a systematic trend towards higher estimates with the FFQ for most nutrients compared to the FD records.
Total number of nutrients validated: 26
Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:
- Saturated Fat
- Mono-unsaturated Fat
- Poly-unsaturated Fat
- Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
- Folic Acid
- Vitamin B12
- Vitamin C
- Fruit & Vegetables
- Urinary Nitrogen
To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.
- Macronutrients: 5
- Micronutrients: 21
|Comparator||Lifestage||Sex||Nutrient Measured||Mean Difference||Standard Deviation||Correlation Coefficient||Cohen's Kappa Coefficient||Percentage Agreement||Percentage Agreement Categories||Lower Limits of Agreement||Upper Limits of Agreement|
|7-day food diaries||Adults and Elderly||Both||Energy (kcal)||655||771||0.653 (S)||-887||2197|
|Protein (g)||20||26||0.729 (S)||-31.6||71|
|Fat (g)||21||30||0.681 (S)||-38||80|
|Carbohydrate (g)||97||125||0.610 (S)||-153||348|
|Fibre (g)||3.9||2.8||0.659 (S)||-1.684||9|
|Sodium (mg)||40||89||0.666 (S)||-138||214|
|Calcium (mg)||148||2124||0.700 (S)||-4100||4396|
|Iron (mg)||4.8||6.2||0.643 (S)||-7.7||17|
|Zinc (mg)||1.9||2.5||0.513 (S)||-3.2||7|
|Folic Acid (μg)||20||25||0.716 (S)||-29||70|
|Vitamin C (mg)||24||51||0.495 (S)||-78||126|
Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.
For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies
All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.
- # Adjusted
- † Energy adjusted.
- ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
- ^ Adjacent included.
- ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
- (w) = Weighted.
Vijay A, Mohan L, Taylor MA, Grove JI, Valdes AM, Aithal GP, et al. The Evaluation and Use of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Among the Population in Trivandrum, South Kerala, India. Nutrients. 2020;12(2):31.