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Validation Information: Multiple Pass 24h Recall

Reilly 2001

Energy intake by multiple pass 24 h recall and total energy expenditure: a comparison in a representative sample of 3–4-year-olds

The accuracy of the multiple pass 24h recall for assessment of habitual energy intake in preschool children is unclear. The primary aim of this study was to assess its accuracy by comparison with measurement of total energy expenditure by doubly-labelled water in a representative sample of forty-one 3-4-year-olds. The recall method was well tolerated by subjects and was administered quickly and easily. However, it produced estimates of energy intake which significantly exceeded measures of total energy expenditure from doubly-labelled water, mean paired difference 660 kJ/d (P<0.01). Agreement between the two methods was poor at the individual level: limits of agreement 660+/-3018 kJ/d. Error and imprecision in both methods contribute to individual differences, but the present study suggests that the multiple pass 24h recall does not provide accurate estimates of dietary energy intake in individual children.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Tool Type
24 Hour Recall
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 Day
Portion Size Measures info
Food portion sizes are estimated using two-dimensional food models (common household measures and dishes, geometric shapes and specific gram weight descriptions).
Reporting Method info
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not Reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Glasgow, Scotland
Associated Nutrient Database
COMP-EAT version 4 (Lifeline Nutritional Services Limited, London) which is based on the UK Food Composition Database
Comparator Validated Against
Doubly Labelled Water


Sample Size
Age of Population

Range: 3-4 years

Mean(SD): 3.7(0.4) years

Other Notable Characteristics
Population represented a range of socio-economic status

Total number of nutrients validated: 1 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Energy
  • Macronutrients: 0
  • Micronutrients: 0
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Doubly Labelled Water Children Both Energy (kcal) 158 361 -564 879
Energy (kJ) 660 1509 -2358 3678

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Reilly JJ, Montgomery C, Jackson D, MacRitchie J, Armstrong J. Energy intake by multiple pass 24 h recall and total energy expenditure: a comparison in a representative sample of 3–4-year-olds. British Journal of Nutrition. 2001 Nov 1;86(05):601-5.