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Validation Information: Multiple Pass 24h Recall

Johnson 1996

Comparison of multiple-pass 24-hour recall estimates of energy intake with total energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water method in young children

Objective: This study determined the accuracy of the multiple-pass 24-hour recall method for estimating energy intake in young children by comparing it with measurements of total energy expenditure made using the doubly labeled water method.

Design: Three multiple-pass 24-hour recalls were obtained over a 14-day period to estimate mean energy intake. Total energy expenditure was measured over the same 14-day period under free-living conditions using the doubly labeled water technique.

Subjects/Setting:Twenty-four children between the ages of 4 and 7 years were tested at the General Clinical Research Center/Sims Obesity Nutrition Research Center at the University of Vermont.

Statistical analysist: Tests, paired t tests, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, pairwise comparison to show relative bias and limits of agreement, and regression analysis were used to test the relationships among study variables.

Results: No difference was found between 3-day mean energy intake and total energy expenditure for the group (t=2.07, P=.65). The correlation between individual measures of energy intake and total energy expenditure was not statistically significant (r=.25, P=.24).

Conclusions: Data from 3 days of multiple-pass 24-hour recalls were sufficient to make valid group estimates of energy intake. The method was not precise for individual measurements of energy intake.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Tool Type
24 Hour Recall
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 Day
Portion Size Measures info
Food portion sizes are estimated using two-dimensional food models (common household measures and dishes, geometric shapes and specific gram weight descriptions).
Reporting Method info
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not Reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Burlington, Vermont, USA
Associated Nutrient Database
Food Intake Analysis System. Version 2.1 (University of Texas Health Science Center)
Comparator Validated Against
Doubly Labelled Water


Sample Size
24 (Both), 12 (Male), 12 (Female)
Age of Population

Range: 4-7 years

Mean(SD): 5.5(0.7) years (Male); 6.4(1) years (Female)

Both, Male Only, Female Only
Other Notable Characteristics
Children who volunteered for ongoing studies on energy requirements in young children.

Total number of nutrients validated: 1 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Energy
  • Macronutrients: 0
  • Micronutrients: 0
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Doubly Labelled Water Children Both Energy (kcal) -54 0.25 (P) -1102 807
Doubly Labelled Water Children Male Only Energy (kcal) -170
Doubly Labelled Water Children Female Only Energy (kcal) 61

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Johnson RK, Driscoll P, Goran MI. Comparison of Multiple-Pass 24-Hour Recall Estimates of Energy Intake With Total Energy Expenditure Determined By the Doubly Labeled Water Method in Young Children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1996; 96: 1140-4.