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Validation Information: FFQ (Colombia)

Dehghan 2012

Development and Validation of a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire among Rural- and Urban-dwelling adults in Colombia

Objective: To validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against multiple 24-hour dietary recalls
(DRs) that could be used for Colombian adults.

Methods: A convenience sample of 219 individuals participated in the study. The validity of the FFQ was
evaluated against multiple DRs. Four dietary recalls were collected during the year, and an FFQ was
administered at the end of the study along with the fourth DR.

Results: Deattenuated correlation coefficient for FFQ against mean intake of 4 DRs varied from 0.77 for
carbohydrate, 0.55 for energy, and 0.51 for protein. In rural areas, lower correlations were observed. The
overall extent of agreement in each quartile of estimated nutrient intake varied from 61% to 83%.

Conclusions and Implications: The FFQ provides moderate to high estimates for energy and nutrient
intake and can be employed to rank individuals based on their habitual intake.

Web Link

Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Energy, Macronutrient, Micronutrient
Tool Type
Food Frequency Questionnaire
Timeframe Tool Measures info
Portion Size Measures info
Standard portion sizes were taken from the dietary recall
Reporting Method info
Retrospective; Usual
Format info
Supplements Measured
Administration Method info
Not reported

Study Information

Study Location
Bucaramanga; Barichara; Villanueva; Aratoca, Colombia
Associated Nutrient Database
Based primarily on the United States Department of Agriculture food composition database and was modified
Comparator Validated Against
24hr Recall


Sample Size
219, 137 (Male), 82 (Female)
Age of Population

Mean(SD): 50.7 (9.8) years

Both, Male Only, Female Only
Other Notable Characteristics
A convenience sample was used for both the development and validation of the tool, this contained some illiterate individuals

Total number of nutrients validated: 8 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Energy
  • Macronutrients: 6
  • Micronutrients: 2
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
24hr Recall Adults Both Energy (kcal) 0.36 (P) 77 4
Protein (g) 0.17 (P) 70 4
Fat (g) 0.03 (P) 67 4
Saturated fat (g) 0.01 (P) 66 4
MUFA (g) 0.02 (P) 63 4
PUFA (g) 0.09 (P) 68 4
Carbohydrate (g) 0.43 (P) 79 4
Sodium (mg) 0.32 (P) 75 4
24hr Recall Adults Male Only Energy (kcal) 0.45 (P) 74 4
Protein (g) 0.29 (P) 70 4
Fat (g) 0.12 (P) 66 4
Saturated fat (g) 0.09 (P) 62 4
MUFA (g) 0.13 (P) 61 4
PUFA (g) 0.20 (P) 67 4
Carbohydrate (g) 0.52 (P) 82 4
Sodium (mg) 0.34 (P) 74 4
24hr Recall Adults Female Only Energy (kcal) 0.37 (P) 79 4
Protein (g) 0.25 (P) 71 4
Fat (g) 0.23 (P) 68 4
MUFA (g) 0.22 (P) 66 4
PUFA (g) 0.29 (P) 71 4
Saturated fat (g) 0.18 (P) 68 4
Carbohydrate (g) 0.38 (P) 80 4
Sodium (mg) 0.28 (P) 77 4

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Dehghan M, Jaramillo PL, Dueñas R, Anaya LL, Garcia RG, Zhang X, Islam S, Merchant AT. Development and validation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire among rural-and urban-dwelling adults in Colombia. Journal of nutrition education and behavior. 2012 Dec 31;44(6):609-13.