Tool Library Tool Information
Validation Information: 24h Recall (Food Photography)
Validation of digital photographs, as a tool in 24-h recall, for the improvement of dietary assessment among rural populations in developing countries
Background. Improvement of traditional methods for dietary assessment is necessary, especially in rural areas where it is more difficult to succeed with self-reporting methods. This study presents and validates a method for improving accuracy when measuring food and nutrient intake of individuals in rural areas. It is called the “Food photography 24-h recall method” (FP 24-hR) and is a modified 24-h recall with the addition of a digital food photography record and a photo atlas.
Methods. The study was carried out in a rural area in the tropical region of Bolivia; 45 women participated. Validation of the method was made by comparing it with a reference method, the Weighed Food Record (WFR). During the FP 24-hR, digital photographs were taken by the subjects of all food consumed during a day and a 24-h recall questionnaire was conducted by an interviewer. An estimate of the amount of food consumed was made using a photo atlas and the photographs taken by the subjects. For validation, comparison was made between the calculations, by both methods, of the levels of food, and nutrient, intake.
Results. The comparison was made in 10 food categories; most of which were somewhat underestimated from −2.3% (cassava) to −6.8% (rice), except for beverages (+1.6%) and leafy vegetables (+8.7%), which were overestimated. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were highly significant (r from 0.75 for eggs to 0.98 for potato and cassava). Nutrient intakes calculated with data from both methods showed small differences from -0.90% (vitamin C) to -5.98% (fat). Although all nutrients were somewhat underestimated, Pearson′s coefficients are high (>0.93 for all) and statistically significant. Bland Altman analysis showed that differences between both methods were random and did not exhibit any systematic bias over levels of food and nutrient intake, with acceptable 95% limits of agreement.
Conclusion. The FP 24-hR exhibits acceptable differences when compared with a WFR, digital photos are useful as a memory aid for the subjects during 24-h recall and as an estimation tool. The method is suitable for assessing dietary intake among rural populations in developing countries.Web Link
Total number of nutrients validated: 15
Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:
- Saturated Fat
- Mono-unsaturated Fat
- Poly-unsaturated Fat
- Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
- Folic Acid
- Vitamin B12
- Vitamin C
- Fruit & Vegetables
- Urinary Nitrogen
To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.
- Macronutrients: 4
- Micronutrients: 11
|Comparator||Lifestage||Sex||Nutrient Measured||Mean Difference||Standard Deviation||Correlation Coefficient||Cohen's Kappa Coefficient||Percentage Agreement||Percentage Agreement Categories||Lower Limits of Agreement||Upper Limits of Agreement|
|Weighed Food Diary||Adults||Female Only||Energy (kcal)||-56.9||0.99 (P)||-163.2||49.2|
|Energy (kJ)||-238||0.99 (P)||-683||206|
|Protein (g)||-2.25||0.99 (P)||-6.93||2.43|
|Fat (g)||-1.50||0.96 (P)||-5.34||2.34|
|Carbohydrate (g)||-8.45||0.99 (P)||-32.66||15.8|
|Fibre (g)||-0.63||0.99 (P)||-2.5||1.6|
|Calcium (mg)||-6.20||0.99 (P)||-48.1||35.7|
|Iron (mg)||-0.60||0.97 (P)||-1.92||0.72|
|Zinc (mg)||-0.37||0.98 (P)||-1.13||0.38|
|Folate (µg)||-8.44||0.98 (P)||-37.5||20.6|
|Vitamin C (mg)||-0.59||0.99 (P)||-11.4||10.2|
|Vegetables (g)||-1.0 (Median)||0.96 (S)||-0.65||1.43|
Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.
For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies
All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.
- # Adjusted
- † Energy adjusted.
- ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
- ^ Adjacent included.
- ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
- (w) = Weighted.
Lazarte CE, Encinas ME, Alegre C, Granfeldt Y. Validation of digital photographs, as a tool in 24-h recall, for the improvement of dietary assessment among rural populations in developing countries. Nutrition journal. 2012 Aug 29;11(1):61.