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Validation Information: FFQ (Adolescent, adult and elderly)

Henn 2010

Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Porto Alegro) for adolescent, adult and elderly populations from Southern Brazil questionnaire (FFQ-Porto Alegre) for adolescent, adult and elderly populations from Southern Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Porto Alegre) for adolescent, adult and elderly populations from Southern Brazil

This study assessed the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Porto Alegre), covering 135 food items, in comparison with the average of two consecutive 24-hour dietary recall questionnaires for adolescents, adults, and elderly who were randomly selected from a population-based survey. The Pearson correlation coefficients and cross-classification by quartiles of intake were used. The nutrients were log transformed and energy adjusted. The mean of adjusted de-attenuated correlation coefficient for adolescents was 0.44 and ranged from 0.18 (zinc) to 0.69 (folate) and for adult and elderly participants they were, respectively, 0.42, ranging from 0.16 (iron) to 0.73 (energy) and 0.52, ranging from 0.25 (vitamin E) to 0.84 (energy). The average classification percentage into the same or adjacent quartile for the two methods was 74.6% for adolescents, 74.9% for adults, and 81.2% for the elderly population. The FFQ showed fair relative validity for adolescents and adults, and may be used to study the dietary determinants of obesity and non-transmissible diseases in epidemiological surveys.

Web Link

Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Full Nutrient
Tool Type
Food Frequency Questionnaire
Timeframe Tool Measures info
12 months
Portion Size Measures info
Portion size was determined using a photograph album of different foods for guidance.
Reporting Method info
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not reported
Administration Method info
Self administered

Study Information

Study Location
Associated Nutrient Database
Programa de Apoio a Nutricao database
Comparator Validated Against
24hr Recall


Sample Size
125 (Adolescent), 66 (Adult), 47 (Elderly)
Adolescents, Adults, Elderly
Age of Population

Range: 12-90 years

Other Notable Characteristics
Subjects were randomly selected from schools, universities and recreational areas in the Porto Alegre and Metropolitan areas in Southern Brazil.

Total number of nutrients validated: 13 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Energy
  • Macronutrients: 7
  • Micronutrients: 7
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
24hr Recall Adolescents Both Energy (kcal) 271 902 0.49 (P)
Protein (g) -1 33 0.54 (P)
Fat (g) 21 43 0.43 (P)
Saturated fat (g) 9 14 0.39 (P)
Carbohydrates (g) 35 118 0.53 (P)
Fibre (g) 6 0.46 (P)
Calcium (mg) 246 359 0.57 (P)
Iron (mg) 2.7 0.48 (P)
Zinc (mg) 1.6 0.35 (P)
Vitamin A (µg) 218.2 1087 0.40 (P)
Folate (mcg) 84 107 0.45 (P)
Vitamin C (mg) -16.8 527 0.50 (P)
24hr Recall Adults Both Energy (kcal) 497 762 0.60 (P)
Protein (g) 18 34 0.58 (P)
Fat (g) 26 35 0.59 (P)
Saturated fat (g) 10 12 0.64 (P)
Carbohydrates (g) 58 103 0.56 (P)
Fibre (g) 12 8 0.44 (P)
Calcium (mg) 218 393 0.66 (P)
Iron (mg) 4.1 7 0.49 (P)
Zinc (mg) 2.9 7 0.44 (P)
Vitamin A (µg) 611.1 1442 0.21 (P)
Folate (mcg) 96.4 126 0.41 (P)
Vitamin C (mg) 77.2 95 0.37 (P)
24hr Recall Elderly Both Energy (kcal) 366 525 0.76 (P)
Protein (g) 8 25 0.73 (P)
Fat (g) 20 24 0.68 (P)
Saturated fat (g) 8 9 0.67 (P)
Carbohydrates (g) 46 89 0.67 (P)
Fibre (g) 10 10 0.46 (P)
Calcium (mg) 222 328 0.62 (P)
Iron (mg) 3 0.51 (P)
Zinc (mg) 2 0.60 (P)
Vitamin A (µg) 520.4 847 0.44 (P)
Folate (mcg) 84.7 130 0.46 (P)
Vitamin C (mg) 79.8 86 0.69 (P)

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Henn R.L, Fuchs S.C, Moreira L. B. & Fuchs F.D. (2010). Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Porto Alegre) for adolescent, adult and elderly populations from Southern Brazil. Cad. Saude Publica, 26 (11) 2068-2079