Tool Library Tool Information
Validation Information: FFQ (12 months old)
What do babies eat? Evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess the diets of infants aged 12 months
Objective: To evaluate the relative validity of an FFQ for assessing nutrient intakes in 12-month-old infants.
Design and setting: The FFQ was developed to assess the diets of infants born to women in the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS), a population-based survey of young women and their offspring. The energy and nutrient intakes obtained from an interviewer-administered FFQ were compared with those obtained from 4 d weighed diaries (WD).
Subjects and methods: A sub-sample of fifty infants (aged 1 year) from the SWS had their diets assessed by both methods. The FFQ recorded the frequencies and amounts of foods and drinks consumed by the infants over the previous 28 d; milk consumption was recorded separately. The WD recorded the weights of all foods and drinks consumed by the infants on 4 d following the FFQ completion.
Results: The Spearman rank correlation coefficients for intakes of energy, macronutrients and eighteen micronutrients, determined by the two methods, ranged from r= 0.25 to 0.66. Bland-Altman statistics showed that mean differences between methods were in the range +5% to +60% except for vitamin D (+106 %). Differences in micronutrient intake were partly explained by changes in patterns of milk consumption between the two assessments.
Conclusion: Although there were differences in absolute energy and nutrient intakes between methods, there was reasonable agreement in the ranking of intakes. The FFQ is a useful tool for assessing energy and nutrient intakes of healthy infants aged around 12 months.
Total number of nutrients validated: 23
Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:
- Saturated Fat
- Mono-unsaturated Fat
- Poly-unsaturated Fat
- Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
- Folic Acid
- Vitamin B12
- Vitamin C
- Fruit & Vegetables
- Urinary Nitrogen
To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.
- Macronutrients: 4
- Micronutrients: 18
|Comparator||Lifestage||Sex||Nutrient Measured||Mean Difference||Standard Deviation||Correlation Coefficient||Cohen's Kappa Coefficient||Percentage Agreement||Percentage Agreement Categories||Lower Limits of Agreement||Upper Limits of Agreement|
|Weighed Food Diary||Infants and toddlers||Both||Energy (kcal)||19%||0.46 (S)||-26%||64%|
|Energy (kJ)||19%||0.46 (S)||-26%||64%|
|Protein (g)||16%||0.52 (S)||-41%||72%|
|Fat (g)||14%||0.36 (S)||-45%||72%|
|Carbohydrates (g)||23%||0.49 (S)||-18%||64%|
|Total Sugars (g)||24%||0.53 (S)||-21%||68%|
|Sodium (mg)||5%||0.66 (S)||-63%||73%|
|Calcium (mg)||12%||0.65 (S)||-42%||65%|
|Iron (mg)||46%||0.44 (S)||-37%||128%|
|Zinc (mg)||31%||0.39 (S)||-26%||88%|
|Retinol (µg)||27%||0.48 (S)||-37%||92%|
|Folic Acid (µg)||29%||0.39 (S)||-35%||94%|
|Vitamin B12 (µg)||13%||0.42 (S)||-69%||94%|
|Vitamin C (mg)||60%||0.52 (S)||-46%||166%|
Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.
For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies
All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.
- # Adjusted
- † Energy adjusted.
- ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
- ^ Adjacent included.
- ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
- (w) = Weighted.
Marriott LD, Inskip HM, Borland SE, Godfrey KM, Law CM, Robinson SM. What do babies eat? Evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess the diets of infants aged 12 months. Public health nutrition. 2009 Jul 1;12(7):967.