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Validation Information: ASA24-Kids

Diep 2015

A validation study of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids) among 9 to 11-year-old youth

Background: Valid methods of diet assessment are important for nutrition research and practice but can be difficult with children.

Objective: To validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9-11-year-old children, in two sites.

Design: Quasi-experimental

Participants/setting: In one site, trained staff observed and recorded foods and drinks consumed by children (n=38) during school lunch. The next day, the observed children completed both ASA24-Kids-2012 and an interviewer-administered 24hDR in a randomized order. Procedures in a second site (n=31) were similar, except observations occurred during dinner in a community location.

Statistical analyses: Foods were classified as matches (reported and consumed), intrusions (reported, but not consumed), or omissions (not reported, but consumed) for each participant. Rates of matches, intrusions, and omissions were calculated. Rates were compared between each recall method using repeated measures analysis of covariance. For matched foods, the authors determined correlation coefficients between observed and reported serving sizes.

Results: Match, intrusion, and omission rates between ASA24-Kids-2012 and observed intakes in site 1 were 37%, 27%, and 35%, respectively. Comparable rates for interviewer-administered 24hDRs were 57%, 20%, and 23%, respectively. In site 2, match, intrusion, and omission rates between ASA24-Kids-2012 and observed intakes were 53%, 12%, and 36%, respectively, vs. 76% matches, 9% intrusions, and 15% omissions for interviewer-administered 24hDRs. The relationship strength between reported and observed serving sizes for matched foods was 0.18 in site 1 and 0.09 in site 2 for ASA24-Kids-2012, and 0.46 in site 1 and 0.11 in site 2 for intervieweradministered 24hDRs.

Conclusions— ASA24-Kids-2012 was less accurate than interviewer-administered 24hDRs when compared to observed intakes, but both performed poorly. Additional research should assess the age at which children can complete recalls without the help of a parent or guardian, as well as to elucidate under which circumstances recalls can reasonably be used among children.

Web Link

Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Food Groups
Tool Type
24 Hour Recall
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 days
Portion Size Measures info
Images were used to guide with portion size estimation
Reporting Method info
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Texas, USA; Arizona, USA
Associated Nutrient Database
Not reported
Comparator Validated Against


Sample Size
69 (Texas: 38; Arizona 2: 31)
Children, Adolescents (aged 9-11 years)
Age of Population

Range: 9- 11 years

Other Notable Characteristics
The validation study doesn't report data on nutrients, therefore this information is not represented in our Validation Results Table. The study looked at % matches, % instrusions, % omissions and portion-size correlation for matched foods.

Total number of nutrients validated: 0 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Macronutrients: 0
  • Micronutrients: 0
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Direct observation Children, Adolescents (aged 9-11 years) Both

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Diep CS, Hingle M, Chen TA, Dadabhoy HR, Beltran A, Baranowski J, Subar AF, Baranowski T. A validation study of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids) among 9 to 11-year-old youth. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2015 Oct;115(10):1591.