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Validation Information: FFQ (I) (Food groups)
The Dutch EPIC Food Frequency Questionnaire. I. Description of the Questionnaire, and Relative Validity and Reproducibility for Food Groups
Background. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire was developed for the Dutch cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Habitual consumption of 178 food items can be calculated from the questionnaire data.
Methods. Reproducibility and relative validity for food group intake were investigated in a population of 121 Dutch men and women. The questionnaire was administered three times at 6-month intervals in order to determine the reproducibility. To assess the relative validity 12 monthly 24-hour recalls served as the reference method.
Results. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients between estimates of food group intake assessed by repeated questionnaires ranged from 0.45 to 0.92. For men, Spearman correlation coefficients between estimates of food group intake based on the questionnaire and those based on 24-hour recalls ranged from 0.21 for cooked vegetables to 0.78 for sugar and sweet products, with a range of 0.61. For women the median was 0.53, with a minimum of 0.31 for vegetables and a maximum of 0.87 for alcoholic beverages. The photographs in the questionnaire for the estimation of portion sizes contributed little to the relative validity of the ranking of subjects. However, on the group level most median food group estimates based on photographic portion sizes were closer to the median intakes as assessed by 24-hour recalls than those based on standard portion sizes.
Conclusions. The questionnaire seems adequate for ranking Dutch EPIC subjects according to intake of most food groups, although the relative validity for some food groups, such as vegetables and fish, remains of concern.
Total number of nutrients validated: 0
Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:
- Saturated Fat
- Mono-unsaturated Fat
- Poly-unsaturated Fat
- Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
- Folic Acid
- Vitamin B12
- Vitamin C
- Fruit & Vegetables
- Urinary Nitrogen
To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.
- Macronutrients: 0
- Micronutrients: 0
|Comparator||Lifestage||Sex||Nutrient Measured||Mean Difference||Standard Deviation||Correlation Coefficient||Cohen's Kappa Coefficient||Percentage Agreement||Percentage Agreement Categories||Lower Limits of Agreement||Upper Limits of Agreement|
|24hr Recall||Adults||Male Only||Fruits||5 (Median)||0.68 (S)|
|Vegetables||-3 (Median using standard portion size calc)||0.38 (S)|
|24hr Recall||Adults||Female Only||Fruits||19 (Median)||0.56 (S)|
|Vegetables||38 (Median using standard portion size calc)||0.31 (S)|
Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.
For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies
All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.
- # Adjusted
- † Energy adjusted.
- ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
- ^ Adjacent included.
- ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
- (w) = Weighted.
Ocke M C, Bueno-De-Mesquita H Bas, Goddijn H Ester, Jansen A M, Pols M A, Van Staveren W A. & Kromhout D. (1997). The Dutch EPIC Food Frequency Questionnaire .1. Description of the Questionnaire, and Relative Validity and Reproducibility for Food Groups. International Journal of Epidemiology, 26 (1) supp 1