Tool Library Tool Information
Validation Information: FFQ (Energy intake, 4-6 year olds)
Validation of an FFQ and options for data processing using the doubly labelled water method in children
Objectives: To validate an FFQ designed to estimate energy intake in children against doubly labelled water (DLW). To investigate how quality control and standard beverage portion sizes affect the validity of the FFQ.
Design: Thirty healthy children, aged 4–6 years, participated. Total energy expenditure (EE) was measured by the DLW method during an observation period of 15 d. At the end of this period parents filled out an FFQ designed to assess the child’s habitual energy intake (EI) of the preceding four weeks.
Setting: Validation study in The Netherlands.
Subjects: Thirty healthy children (fifteen boys and fifteen girls), aged 4–6 years.
Results: Mean EI (6117 (sd 1025) kJ/d) did not differ significantly from mean EE (6286 (sd 971) kJ/d; P = 0·15); the mean EI:EE ratio was 0·98. The Pearson correlation coefficient between EI and EE was 0·62. The Bland–Altman plot showed no systematic bias and a constant bias close to zero. Less intensive quality control of the FFQ maintained the mean EI:EE ratio and decreased the correlation slightly. Using standard instead of individually measured beverage portion sizes decreased the mean EI:EE ratio, but maintained the correlation.
Conclusions: It can be concluded that the developed FFQ is a valid instrument to estimate mean energy intake in a group of 4- to 6-year-old children and performs reasonably well to rank the subjects with respect to energy intake. It is therefore a useful instrument to estimate energy intake in children in surveys and epidemiological studies in The Netherlands.
Total number of nutrients validated: 1
Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:
- Saturated Fat
- Mono-unsaturated Fat
- Poly-unsaturated Fat
- Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
- Folic Acid
- Vitamin B12
- Vitamin C
- Fruit & Vegetables
- Urinary Nitrogen
To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.
- Macronutrients: 0
- Micronutrients: 0
|Comparator||Lifestage||Sex||Nutrient Measured||Mean Difference||Standard Deviation||Correlation Coefficient||Cohen's Kappa Coefficient||Percentage Agreement||Percentage Agreement Categories||Lower Limits of Agreement||Upper Limits of Agreement|
|Doubly labelled water||Children (4-6 years)||Both||Energy (kcal)||40||-12.9||0.62 (P)||53||3|
|Energy (kJ)||169||0.62 (P)||53||3|
Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.
For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies
All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.
- # Adjusted
- † Energy adjusted.
- ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
- ^ Adjacent included.
- ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
- (w) = Weighted.
Dutman A.E, Stafleu A, Kruizinga A, Brants H. A.M, Westerterp K.R, Kistemaker C, Meuling W.J.A & Goldbohm R.A. Validation of an FFQ and options for data processing using the doubly labelled water method in children. (2010). Public Health Nutrition 14 (3) 410-417