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Validation Information: ASA24

Thompson 2014

Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems

Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study’s goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010–2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Full Nutrient, Food Groups
Tool Type
24 Hour Recall
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 day
Portion Size Measures info
Images are taken from the Children's Nutrition Research Center of Baylor College of Medicine to aid with portion size reporting
Reporting Method info
Format info
Supplements Measured
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Wisconsin, USA; Michigan, USA; California, USA
Associated Nutrient Database
USDA’s Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (version 4.1) and MyPyramid Equivalents Database (version 2.0)
Comparator Validated Against
24hr Recall


Sample Size
512 (Male), 569 (Female)
Age of Population

Range: 20-70 years

Male Only, Female Only
Other Notable Characteristics
Efforts were made to recruit a diverse range of participiants.

Total number of nutrients validated: 13 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Energy
  • Macronutrients: 5
  • Micronutrients: 8
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
24hr Recall (AMPM) Adults Male Only Energy (kcal) -51
Protein (g) 3.2
Fat (g) -3.1
Saturated Fat (g) 1.4
Carbohydrates (g) -17
Fibre (g) -0.4
Sodium (mg) 287
Calcium (mg) -53
Iron (mg) 0.3
Folate (µg) -17
Vitamin C (mg) 10
Fruits (cup equivalents) -0.19
Vegetables (cup equivalents) -0.07
24hr Recall (AMPM) Adults Female Only Energy (kcal) 30
Protein (g) 3
Fat (g) 5.2
Saturated Fat (g) 2.6
Carbohydrates (g) -4
Fibre (g) 0.5
Sodium (mg) 353
Calcium (mg) 9
Iron (mg) -0.4
Folate (µg) -17
Vitamin C (mg) -2
Fruits (cup equivalents) -0.13
Vegetables (cup equivalents) 0.12

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Thompson FE, Dixit-Joshi S, Potischman N, Dodd KW, Kirkpatrick SI, Kushi LH, Alexander GL, Coleman LA, Zimmerman TP, Sundaram ME, Clancy HA. Comparison of interviewer-administered and automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recalls in 3 diverse integrated health systems. American journal of epidemiology. 2015 May 10;181(12):970-8.