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Validation Information: AMPM

Blanton 2006

The USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method Accurately Estimates Group Total Energy and Nutrient Intake

The imperative to address the national obesity epidemic has stimulated efforts to develop accurate dietary assessment methods suitable for large-scale applications. This study evaluated the performance of the USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM), the computerized dietary recall designed for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary survey, and 2 epidemiological methods [the Block food-frequency questionnaire (Block) and National Cancer Institute's Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ)] using doubly labeled water (DLW) total energy expenditure (TEE) and 14-d estimated food record (FR) absolute nutrient intake as criterion measures. Twenty highly motivated, normal-weight-stable, premenopausal women participated in a free-living study that included 2 unannounced AMPM recalls and completion of the Block and DHQ. AMPM and FR total energy intake (TEI) did not differ significantly from DLW TEE [AMPM: 8982 ± 2625 kJ; FR: 8416 ± 2217; DLW: 8905 ± 1881 (mean ± SD)]. Conversely, the questionnaires underestimated TEI by ∼28% (Block: 6365 ± 2193; DHQ: 6215 ± 1976; P < 0.0001 vs. DLW). Pearson correlation coefficients for DLW TEE with each dietary method TEI showed a stronger linear relation for AMPM (r = 0.53; P = 0.02) and FR (r = 0.41; P = 0.07) than for the Block (r = 0.25; P = 0.29) and DHQ (r = 0.15; P = 0.53). Most mean absolute FR nutrient intakes were closely approximated by the AMPM but were significantly underestimated by the questionnaires. In highly motivated premenopausal women, the AMPM provides valid measures of group total energy and nutrient intake whereas the Block and DHQ yield underestimations.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Full Nutrient
Tool Type
24 Hour Recall
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 day
Portion Size Measures info
The Food Model Booklet is provided to participants to help estimate portion sizes
Reporting Method info
Format info
Supplements Measured
Administration Method info
Interviewer adminstered

Study Information

Study Location
Davis, California, USA
Associated Nutrient Database
The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies were used to convert portion sizes into grams and determine the nutrient content
Comparator Validated Against
Doubly Labelled Water, Food Diary Estimated


Sample Size
20 (Doubly Labelled Water), 20 (Estimated Food Diary)
Adults (Premenopausal)
Age of Population

Mean (SD): 30.0 (3.9) years

Female Only
Other Notable Characteristics
Participants met a strict inclusion criteria including: current use of hormonal contraceptive pill, premenopausal and not pregnant or lactating. Most were Caucasian graduate students.

Total number of nutrients validated: 36 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Energy
  • Macronutrients: 10
  • Micronutrients: 26
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Doubly Labelled Water Adults (Premenopausal) Female Only
Estimated Food Diary Adults (Premenopausal) Female Only MUFA (g) -12.5 (Median) 0.27 (P)
Total Sugar (g) -27.8 (Median) 0.31 (P)
Sodium (mg) -1578.4 (Median) 0.06 (P)
Calcium (mg) -457.9 (Median) 0.43 (P)
Iron (mg) -7.7 (Median) 0.36 (P)
Zinc (mg) -4.3 (Median) 0.38 (P)
Folate (µg) -216.4 (Median) 0.28 (P)
Vitamin B12 (µg) 1.6 (Median) 0.41 (P)
Vitamin C (mg) 61.3 (Median) 0.36 (P)

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Blanton CA, Moshfegh AJ, Baer DJ, Kretsch MJ. The USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method accurately estimates group total energy and nutrient intake. The Journal of nutrition. 2006 Oct 1;136(10):2594-9.