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Validation Information: FFQ (Inuvialuit)

Pakseresht 2010

Validation of a culturally appropriate quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Inuvialuit population in the Northwest Territories, Canada

Background: The estimation of dietary intake in population-based studies is often assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). This present study aimed to establish the validity of a 142-item quantitative FFQ (QFFQ) developed to assess dietary intake in a population living in the Northwest Territories, Canada, and undergoing rapid nutrition transition.

Methods: Sixty-four randomly selected Inuvialuit adults were recruited. The mean of one to three 24-h recalls was used as the reference to measure the validity of the QFFQ. Spearman rank correlations (q), cross-classification and weighted kappa were computed as measures of concordance, adjusting for the daily dietary intake variations in the recalls. Bland – Altman plots were used for additional assessment.

Results: Four participants with daily energy intake of >25.1 MJ were not included in the analysis. For all nutrients, mean daily intake estimations were higher from the QFFQ than from the recalls. De-attenuated q’s for macronutrients ranged from 0.33 (protein) to 0.45 (carbohydrate). The best de-attenuated q amongst micronutrients was observed for vitamin C (0.53). Overall correlation between the two dietary tools improved after correction for within-person variance (from 0.32 to 0.35). When nutrient intakes were categorised into quartiles, the QFFQ and 24-h recalls indicated relative agreement (same or adjacent quartiles) for 77% for energy and macronutrients, 86% for total sugar and 72% for micronutrients. Bland–Altman plots showed a tendency for increased scatter of the differences at higher intakes.

Conclusions: The QFFQ developed is valid and can be used to assess usual dietary intake and dietary adequacy, determine the contribution of foods to specific nutrient intakes, and identify dietary risk factors for chronic disease amongst Inuvialuit.

Web Link

Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Full Nutrient
Tool Type
Food Frequency Questionnaire
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 month
Portion Size Measures info
Not reported
Reporting Method info
Retrospective; Usual
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not reported
Administration Method info
Interviewer adminstered

Study Information

Study Location
Northwest Territories, Canada
Associated Nutrient Database
USDA National Nutrient Database
Comparator Validated Against
24hr Recall


Sample Size
64, 38 (≤50 years), 22 (>50 years)
Adults, Adults (≤50 years), Adults (>50 years)
Age of Population

Mean (SD): Females: 45 (13) years; Males: 46 (14) years

Other Notable Characteristics
The tool was developed based on dietary intake data from 2 communities, the validation study only used participants from 1 of the communities. Participants were the main food shopper or preparer in their household.

Total number of nutrients validated: 13 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Energy
  • Macronutrients: 5
  • Micronutrients: 8
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
24hr Recall Adults Both Energy (kcal) 614 N/C 0.43 (S) 0.26 33 4 N/C N/C
24hr Recall Adults (≤50 years) Both Total fat (g) 0.61 (S)
Carbohydrate (g) 0.46 (S)
24hr Recall Adults (>50 years) Both

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Pakseresht M, Sharma S. Validation of a culturally appropriate quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Inuvialuit population in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics. 2010 Oct 1;23(s1):75-82.