Log in Register

Tool Library Tool Information Best Practice Guidelines – Evaluation Checklist (opens new tab)

Validation Information: FFQ (Food stores)

Horwath 1990

Assessment Of The Validity Of A Food Frequency Questionnaire As A Measure Of Food Use By Comparison With Direct Observation Of Domestic Food Stores

The aim of this study was to assess the validity as a measure of food use of a 90-rtem semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire which had been used in a study of food consumption patterns and health among 3,000 people aged 65 years and ovor selected at random from the electoral rolls of Adelaide, South Australia. In 1986, 18 months after the original survey, 200 randomly selected participants were invited to take part in the present study. The food frequency questionnaire was administered by mail, and results were compared with a direct observation of the foods that 40 subjects had in their home. The kappa statistic indicated good agreement (in all cases greater than that expected due to chance) between the reported use of individual foods in the questionnaire and the observed presence or absence of those foods in the subject's home. Correlation coefficients between scores generated from the questionnaire for consumption from specific food groups and those derived from direct observation of domestic food stores ranged from 0.42 to 0.86. These data indicate that a simple selfadministered dietary questionnaire can provide a valid measure of food use patterns in elderly people.

Web Link

Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Food Groups
Tool Type
Food Frequency Questionnaire
Timeframe Tool Measures info
Portion Size Measures info
Not reported
Reporting Method info
Retrospective; Usual
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Adelaide, South Australia
Associated Nutrient Database
Not reported
Comparator Validated Against


Sample Size
Age of Population

Age Range: 65-75+ years

Other Notable Characteristics

Total number of nutrients validated: 0 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Macronutrients: 0
  • Micronutrients: 0
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Direct Observation Elderly Both Fruit 0.54 (S)
Vegetables 0.42 (S)

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Horwath CC, Worsley A. Assessment of the validity of a food frequency questionnaire as a measure of food use by comparison with direct observation of domestic food stores. American journal of epidemiology. 1990;131(6):1059-67.