Tool Library Tool Information
Validation Information: FFQ (Botswana)
Validation and reproducibility of an FFQ for use among adults in Botswana
Objective:To evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a 122-item interviewer-administered quantitative FFQ developed to determine food and nutrient intakes of adults in Botswana.
Design:Relative validity of the FFQ was evaluated by comparing nutrient and food group intakes against four non-consecutive 24 h recalls administered over12 months. The FFQ was repeated after 1 year to assess reproducibility.
Subjects:Seventy-nine adults aged 18–75 years.
Results:Spearman correlation coefficients for the validity of energy-adjusted nutrients ranged from 0.42 (carbohydrate) to 0.49 (protein) for macronutrients and from 0.23 (Fe) to 0.44 (PUFA) for micronutrients. Exact agreement of quartile distribution for nutrients between the FFQ and recalls ranged from 27% to 72%. Weighted kappa values were lowest for retinol (0.13), Fe (0.22) and b-carotene (0.25) and ranged from 0.33 (SFA) to 0.59 (folate) for other nutrients (energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, Ca and vitamin E). Spearman correlation coefficients between the recalls and FFQ for food groups ranged from 0?18 (dark green leafy and yellow vegetables) to 0?58 (poultry). Reproducibility correlation coefficients (energy-adjusted) varied between 0?39 for retinol and 0?66 for vitamin E, with most values falling between 0?50 and 0?60.
Conclusions:The FFQ had good relative validity for estimating habitual food group and nutrient intakes, but was poor for some micronutrients (Fe, retinol and b-carotene) and foods (fruits and dark green leafy vegetables).
Total number of nutrients validated: 13
Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:
- Saturated Fat
- Mono-unsaturated Fat
- Poly-unsaturated Fat
- Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
- Folic Acid
- Vitamin B12
- Vitamin C
- Fruit & Vegetables
- Urinary Nitrogen
To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.
- Macronutrients: 7
- Micronutrients: 6
|Comparator||Lifestage||Sex||Nutrient Measured||Mean Difference||Standard Deviation||Correlation Coefficient||Cohen's Kappa Coefficient||Percentage Agreement||Percentage Agreement Categories||Lower Limits of Agreement||Upper Limits of Agreement|
|24hr Recall||Adults; Elderly||Both||Energy (kcal)||167 (Median)||0.51 (S)||0.40 (W)||43||4|
|Energy (kJ)||698 (Median)||0.51 (S)||0.40 (W)||43||4|
|Protein (g)||5.3 (Median)||0.46 (S)||0.40 (W)||40||4|
|Fat (g)||3.9 (Median)||0.41 (S)||0.42 (W)||45||4|
|Saturated Fat (g)||1.4 (Median)||0.35 (S)||0.33 (W)||35||4|
|MUFA (g)||1.1 (Median)||0.34 (S)||0.45 (W)||53||4|
|PUFA (g)||1.0 (Median)||0.43 (S)||0.31 (W)||37||4|
|Carbohydrates (g)||46 (Median)||0.40 (S)||0.42 (W)||45||4|
|Fibre (g)||-2.9 (Median)||0.40 (S)||0.42 (W)||45||4|
|Calcium (mg)||-22 (Median)||0.34 (S)||0.35 (W)||40||4|
|Iron (mg)||3.2 (Median)||0.23 (S)||0.22 (W)||35||4|
|Retinol (µg)||5.2 (Median)||0.22 (S)||0.13 (W)||27||4|
|Folate (µg)||24 (Median)||0.32 (S)||0.59 (W)||67||4|
|Fruits (g)||21 (Median)||0.23 (S)|
Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.
For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies
All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.
- # Adjusted
- † Energy adjusted.
- ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
- ^ Adjacent included.
- ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
- (w) = Weighted.
Jackson MD, Motswagole BS, Kwape LD, Kobue-Lekalake RI, Rakgantswana TB, Mongwaketse T, et al. Validation and reproducibility of an FFQ for use among adults in Botswana. Public health nutrition. 2013;16(11):1995-2004.