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Validation Information: FFQ (Castilla-La Mancha region)

Fregapane 2000

Dietary assessment of an educated young Spanish population using a self-administered meal-based food frequency questionnaire

In this study a self-administered meal-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was developed, whose main aim was to classify individuals by their intake of food groups and nutrients. The respondents (205 final participants) from the target population were recruited from students and staff of the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Castilla-La Mancha in Ciudad Real (Spain). The validity of the questionnaire was assessed in comparison with a four-day weighed diet record on a subset group of participants (n = 38). Results of the calibration study were similar to those reported in the literature, showing a reasonable correlation between the two methods. To improve dietary habits of the target population, an effective nutritional education programme should stress the importance of increasing consumption of food groups rich in starch and reducing those containing high level of proteins, sugars, fat and cholesterol.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Full Nutrient
Tool Type
Food Frequency Questionnaire
Timeframe Tool Measures info
Portion Size Measures info
Household measures
Reporting Method info
Usual; Retrospective
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
Associated Nutrient Database
Tablas de composición de alimentos españoles 1995 (Moreira; Anaya); Composition of foods 5th ed (Holland); Tabelle di composizione degli alimenti, 4th ed. 1997 (EDRA, Milano); Repertoire general des aliments, table de composition 1995. (Lavoisier)
Comparator Validated Against
Weighed Food Diary


Sample Size
Age of Population

Range:18-61 years

Other Notable Characteristics

Total number of nutrients validated: 32 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Macronutrients: 8
  • Micronutrients: 7
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Weighed Food Diary Adults Both Protein (g) -15.4% (Median) 0.33 (S); 0.26 (ICC)
Fat (g) 6.2% (Median) 0.36 (S); 0.33 (ICC)
Saturated fat (g) -8.3% (Median) 0.70 (S); 0.58 (ICC)
MUFA (g) -3.4% (Median) 0.41 (S); 0.36 (ICC)
PUFA (g) 1.2% (Median) 0.30 (S); 0.54 (ICC)
Carbohydrates (g) -1.5% (Median) 0.79 (S); 0.79 (ICC)
Total sugars (g) 8.2 % (Median) 0.34 (S); 0.32 (ICC)
Fibre (g) 23.4% (Median) 0.45 (S); 0.58 (ICC)
Sodium (mg) -6.3% (Median) 0.88 (S); 0.75 (ICC)
Calcium (mg) 7.9% (Median) 0.65 (S); 0.68 (ICC)
Iron (mg) -8.9% (Median) 0.48 (S); 0.34 (ICC)
Zinc (mg) 9.7% (Median) 0.35 (S); 0.31 (ICC)
Folic acid 32.5% (Median) 0.35 (S); 0.28 (ICC)
Vitamin B12 28.7% (Median) 0.41 (S); 0.38 (ICC)
Vitamin C 4.3% (Median) 0.31 (S); 0.37 (ICC)

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Fregapane G, Asensio-García C. Dietary assessment of an educated young Spanish population using a self-administered meal-based food frequency questionnaire. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2000;16(2):183-91.