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Validation Information: FFQ (Mediterranean region)
Use of a three-day estimated food record, a 72-hour recall and a food-frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment in a Mediterranean Spanish population
Aim: To assess the validity and the short-term reproducibility of a semi-quantitative, self-administrated food frequency questionnaire and a structured 72-hour recall in a Mediterranean Spanish population.
Methods: 44 free-living volunteers participated in the study. Macronutrient, vitamin and mineral intake, recorded on the food frequency questionnaire and the structured 72-h recall were compared with intakes derived from a three-day food record (reference method). Validity of the dietary assessment methods was further assessed by comparing urinary nitrogen, plasma vitamin C, plasma β-carotene and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity levels with the corresponding nutrient intakes from the questionnaires. The food frequency questionnaire and the 72-h recall were administered twice to assess the short term reproducibility.
Results: Pearson's correlation coefficients between urinary nitrogen, plasma vitamin C, plasma β-carotene and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity levels and the reported nitrogen, vitamin C, β-carotene and selenium intakes were 0.26, 0.53, 0.17, 0.26 for the food frequency questionnaire; 0.41, 0.09, 0.34, 0.42 for the structured 72-h recall and 0.50, 0.54, 0.44, 0.38 for the three-day food record, respectively. The short term reproducibility of analysed nutrient intake showed average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.69 for the food frequency questionnaire and the structured 72-h recall irrespectively.
Conclusion: The food frequency questionnaire and the structured 72-h recall provide valid estimates of nutrient intake and could be used for dietary assessments.
Total number of nutrients validated: 13
Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:
- Saturated Fat
- Mono-unsaturated Fat
- Poly-unsaturated Fat
- Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
- Folic Acid
- Vitamin B12
- Vitamin C
- Fruit & Vegetables
- Urinary Nitrogen
To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.
- Macronutrients: 4
- Micronutrients: 8
|Comparator||Lifestage||Sex||Nutrient Measured||Mean Difference||Standard Deviation||Correlation Coefficient||Cohen's Kappa Coefficient||Percentage Agreement||Percentage Agreement Categories||Lower Limits of Agreement||Upper Limits of Agreement|
|Estimated Food Diary||Adults||Both||Energy (kcal)||779||1004||0.29 (P); 0.19 (ICC)||27||4||-1229||2787|
|Energy (kJ)||3620||4200||0.29 (P); 0.19 (ICC)||27||4||-5141||11661|
|Protein (g)||33||49||0.29 (P); 0.19 (ICC)||27||4||-65||131|
|Fat (g)||36||53||0.17 (P); 0.12 (ICC)||24||4||-70||142|
|Carbohydrates (g)||84||117||0.31 (P); 0.26 (ICC)||27||4||-150||318|
|Folate (µg)||141||144||0.27 (P); 0.21 (ICC)||29||4||-147||429|
|Vitamin C (mg)||158||151||0.60 (P); 0.40 (ICC)||56||4||-144||460|
Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.
For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies
All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.
- # Adjusted
- † Energy adjusted.
- ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
- ^ Adjacent included.
- ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
- (w) = Weighted.
Schröder H, Covas M I, Marrugat J, Vila J, Pena A, Alcantara M, Masia R. Use of a three-day estimated food record, a 72-hour recall and a food-frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment in a Mediterranean Spanish population. Clinical Nutrition. 2001; 20(5): 429-437.