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Validation Information: Short Qualitative Food Frequency List (FFL)

Winkler 1998

Validation of a short qualitative food frequency list used in several German large scale surveys

Summary: Our study aimed to test the validity of a short, qualitative food frequency list (FFL) used in several German large scale surveys. In the surveys of the MONICA project Augsburg, the FFL was used in randomly selected adults. In 1984/85, a dietary survey with 7-day records (DR) was conducted within the subsample of men aged 45 to 64 (response 70%). The 899 DR were used to validate the FFL. Mean weekly food intake frequency and mean daily food intake were compared and Spearman rank order correlation coefficients and classification into tertiles with values of the statistic Kappa were calculated. Spearman correlations range between 0.15 for the item Other sweets (candies, compote) and 0.60 for the items Curds, yoghurt, sour milk, Milk including butter milk and Mineral water; values for statistic Kappa vary between 0.04 (White bread, brown bread, crispbread) and 0.41 (Flaked oats, muesli, cornflakes and milk including butter milk). With the exception of two items, FFL data can be used for analysis on group level. Analysis on individual level should be done with caution. It seems, as if some food groups are generally easier to ask for in FFL than others.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Food Groups
Tool Type
Food Checklist
Timeframe Tool Measures info
Portion Size Measures info
No portion sizes were provided
Reporting Method info
Usual; Retrospective
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Augsburg, Germany
Associated Nutrient Database
Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel BLS, version II.1
Comparator Validated Against
Weighed Food Diary


Sample Size
Age of Population

Range: 45-64 years

Male Only
Other Notable Characteristics
Participants were part of the MONICA project Augsburg

Total number of nutrients validated: 0 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Macronutrients: 0
  • Micronutrients: 0
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Weighed Food Diary Adults Male Only Fruit (g) 0.49 (S) 0.22 49 3

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Winkler G, Doring A. Validation of a short qualitative food frequency list used in several German large scale surveys. Zeitschrift fur Ernahrungswissenschaft. 1998;37(3):234-41