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Validation Information: FFQ (Fatty Acids & Antioxidants)

Stiegler 2009

A new FFQ designed to measure the intake of fatty acids and antioxidants in children

Objective:The present paper describes the systematic development of an FFQ to assess the intake of fatty acids and antioxidants in school-aged children. In addition, a validation study applying 24 h dietary recalls was performed.

Design:Using the variance-based Max_r method, a list of eighty-two foods was compiled from data obtained by 3 d weighed dietary records. The foods were used to design an FFQ, the comprehensibility of which was evaluated in a feasibility study. In addition, the FFQ was validated in a subset of 101 children from the German Infant Nutritional Intervention Study (GINI PLUS) against one 24 h dietary recall.

Results:The feasibility study attested a good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of foods compared well between the FFQ and the 24 h dietary recall, although intake data generated from the FFQ tended to be higher. This difference became less apparent at the nutrient level, although the estimated average consumption of arachidonic acid and EPA using the FFQ still exceeded values recorded with the 24 h recall method by 45 % and 29 %, respectively.

Conclusions:On the basis of the systematic selection process of the food list, the established practicability of the FFQ and the overall plausibility of the results, the use of this FFQ is justified in future epidemiological studies.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Full Nutrient, Food Groups
Tool Type
Food Frequency Questionnaire
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 Year
Portion Size Measures info
Common portion sizes are given for each food item. Coloured pictures from the EPIC study are included for those foods which are difficult to describe in common household measures.
Reporting Method info
Usual; Retrospective
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not Reported
Administration Method info
Not Reported

Study Information

Study Location
Munich, Germany
Associated Nutrient Database
The German Food Code and Nutrient Database. (Bundeslebensmittelschlussel, BLS) Version II.3.1
Comparator Validated Against
24hr Recall


Sample Size
Age of Population

Range: 9-11 years

Other Notable Characteristics
The subjects were a part of the GINI PLUS Study

Total number of nutrients validated: 16 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Energy
  • Macronutrients: 9
  • Micronutrients: 6
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
24hr Recall Children Both Energy (kcal) 149 745 42.6 3 -1312 1610
Energy (kJ) 624 3119 42.6 3 -5489 6737
Protein (g) 10 28 41.6 3 -45 65
Fat (g) -6 38 45.5 3 -80 68
Saturated Fat (g) -1 16 45.5 3 -32 30
MUFA (g) -2 15 45.5 3 -31 27
Carbohydrates (g) 54 111 43.6 3 -164 272
Retinol (µg) 113 633 32.7 3 -1128 1354
Vitamin C (mg) 13 119 41.6 3 -220 246

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Stiegler P, Sausenthaler S, Buyken AE, Rzehak P, Czech D, Linseisen J, et al. A new FFQ designed to measure the intake of fatty acids and antioxidants in children. Public health nutrition. 2010;13(1):38-46.