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Validation Information: Short FFQ (Legume)

Papadaki 2007

Relative validity and utility of a short food frequency questionnaire assessing the intake of legumes in Scottish women

Objective: To validate a five-item, semi-quantitative, short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) designed to estimate daily legume consumption over a week, against results obtained from 7-day food diaries (7-day FD).

Design: Participants completed a 7-day FD and at the end of this period completed the SFFQ, to indicate the number of times they ate five legume-containing dishes in the previous week and what size portion of each dish they consumed. Daily legume intake (g day-1) was calculated for both methods and participants were classified into tertiles of intake for each method.

Subjects/setting: Fifty-one healthy females aged 25-55 years, employed at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK between May 2003 and December 2004.

Results: The two methods produced a similar mean intake of legumes [SFFQ: 14.8 (95% CI: 9.9-19.8) versus 7-day FD: 14.9 (95% CI: 9.3-20.6) g day-1] and the Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.353 (P = 0.038). Exact agreement within tertiles and gross misclassification were 54.9% and 9.8% respectively. The weighted kappa statistic indicated fair agreement between the two methods (κ = 0.262).

Conclusions: The SFFQ is an acceptable instrument for estimating legume consumption over a week and can be used to rank individuals according to the intake of this food group in similar nutrition intervention studies.

Web Link

Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Food Groups
Tool Type
Food Frequency Questionnaire
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 Week
Portion Size Measures info
Household units.
Reporting Method info
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not Reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Glasgow, Scotland
Associated Nutrient Database
The nutrient database used by the Short FFQ was not reported. The estimated food diary used the Diet5 program (Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK)
Comparator Validated Against
Food Diary Estimated


Sample Size
Age of Population

Range: 25-55 years

Mean(SD): 40.3(7.3) years

Female Only
Other Notable Characteristics
Healthy Population

Total number of nutrients validated: 0 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Macronutrients: 0
  • Micronutrients: 0
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Estimated Food Diary Adults Female Only

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Papadaki A, Scott JA. Relative validity and utility of a short food frequency questionnaire assessing the intake of legumes in Scottish women. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics. 2007 Oct 1;20(5):467-75.