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Validation Information: Five a day Community Evaluation Tool (FACET)

Ashfield-Watt 2007

Effect of a pilot community intervention on fruit and vegetable intakes: use of FACET (Five-a-day Community Evaluation Tool)

Background: In 2001 the UK Department of Health funded pilot community-based interventions to improve fruit and vegetable intakes in five economically deprived areas of England. The effectiveness of the programme and the use of a brief tool for evaluating community interventions are reported here.

Methods: Data on intakes of and beliefs about fruit and vegetables were collected by a short postal questionnaire (FACET - Five-a-day Community Evaluation Tool) simultaneously from 810 individuals living in the pilot communities and 270 individuals who were participating in an unrelated observational study (controls). Data were collected before and after a 12-month intervention period. Quantitative dietary data derived from 7-day food diaries available for control subjects were used to assess the ability of the FACET questionnaire to estimate fruit and vegetable intakes.

Results: Compared with controls, the intervention group significantly increased their knowledge of the 5-a-day optimum (P < 0.01) and reported increased access to fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001). Overall, the intervention had no demonstrable effect on total fruit and vegetable intakes as measured by FACET. However, smoking habit strongly predicted change in fruit and vegetable intakes (P < 0.01) in the intervention group. Opposite trends were observed in the two groups, with ‘smokers’ and ‘nonsmokers’ in the intervention and control groups respectively reducing their fruit and vegetable intakes. The FACET questionnaire agreed with food diary estimates of fruit and vegetable intakes in 56% of cases.

Conclusions: Community-based interventions can produce important changes in knowledge of and access to fruit and vegetables. However, in this study change in fruit and vegetable intakes was strongly influenced by smoking habit. This bias needs to be considered in planning future intervention and evaluation programmes. The FACET questionnaire provides acceptable estimates of fruit and vegetable intakes which may be used for grading intake in large community-based projects.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Food Groups
Tool Type
Food Frequency Questionnaire
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 Day
Portion Size Measures info
Not recorded.
Reporting Method info
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not Reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Associated Nutrient Database
Comparator Validated Against
Food Diary Estimated


Sample Size
Age of Population
Not Reported
Other Notable Characteristics

Total number of nutrients validated: 0 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Macronutrients: 0
  • Micronutrients: 0
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Estimated Food Diary Adults Both Fruit and Vegetables (portions) 1.3 4.4 0.46 56ᵟ -7 10

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Ashfield-Watt PA, Welch AA, Godward S, Bingham SA. Effect of a pilot community intervention on fruit and vegetable intakes: use of FACET (Five-a-day Community Evaluation Tool). Public Health Nutrition. 2007 Jul 1;10(07):671-80.