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Validation Information: FFQ (Peanut)

Sofianou-Katsouilis 2011

Assessing Peanut Consumption in a Population of Mothers and Their Children in the UK Validation Study of a Food Frequency Questionnaire

Background: Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are essential tools to investigate the relationship between peanut consumption and the development of peanut allergy. The aim was to validate a 50-item FFQ for use in peanut protein sensitization studies.

Methods: There were 38 mother-child pairs visiting a pediatric clinic of a London hospital included. Mothers recorded their own and their child's diet, using a 7 day food diary (7DFDR), completed prospectively over week. Six months later, they tried to recall the consumption of food items for the index week on a FFQ.

Results: Of these, 33 out of 38 mothers completed both the 7DFDR and the recall FFQ. Although there was considerable variation at the individual level between the 2 tools, there was extremely close agreement between the mean 7DFDR response and the FFQ when considering groups of fives with similar FFQ levels. Agreement was apparent on both peanut and other control foods consumption patterns.

Conclusion: The FFQ will reliably divide the population into groups with markedly different peanut consumption levels. It accurately reflects true adults and children peanut consumption, especially at low levels of peanut consumption, as it was validated against the gold standard, the 7DFDR. It also provides a good measure of other foods consumption.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Macronutrient, Food Groups
Tool Type
Food Frequency Questionnaire
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 Week
Portion Size Measures info
Quantities listed were in portion sizes as recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture, however, for prepacked snacks the number of items consumed (i.e., bars) was requested.
Reporting Method info
Retrospective; Usual
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not Reported
Administration Method info
Self-administered (mother); by-proxy: parents completed for their child

Study Information

Study Location
London, England
Associated Nutrient Database
Not reported
Comparator Validated Against
Food Diary Estimated


Sample Size
65 (32 mothers; 33 children)
Children, Adults
Age of Population

Range: 3-7 years (Children); Not reported for mothers

Other Notable Characteristics

Total number of nutrients validated: 1 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Macronutrients: 1
  • Micronutrients: 0
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Estimated Food Diary Children, Adults Both

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Sofianou-Katsoulis A, Mesher D, Sasieni P, Du Toit G, Fox AT, Lack G. Assessing peanut consumption in a population of mothers and their children in the uk: validation study of a food frequency questionnaire. World Allergy Organization Journal. 2011 Feb 23;4(2):38.