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Validation Information: Diet History

Black 2000

Validation of dietary intakes measured by diet history against 24 h urinary nitrogen excretion and energy expenditure measured by the doubly-labelled water method in middle-aged women

A diet history method for estimating energy and N intakes was validated against 24 h urinary N excretion and energy expenditure measured by the doubly-labelled water (DLW) method. Fortyeight women aged 50-65 years were studied over 1 year. Weighed diet records from 4d and two 24h urine collections, for measurement of urinary N excretion, were obtained in each of four seasons. At the end of the year, a diet history was obtained, BMR was measured by whole-body calorimetry, and, in sixteen women, total energy expenditure (EE) was measured by DLW. Energy intake (EI) and N intake (NI) were calculated using food tables. Using weighed records and diet history respectively mean NI were 11.21 (SD 2.09)g and 11.47 (SD 2.40)g (NS) and EI were 8.08 (SD 1.54) MJ and 8.20 (SD 1.86) MJ (NS). Mean urine N:NI and EI:BMR values indicated bias to under-reporting by weighed record and diet history techniques in some individuals, but there was no significant difference between these measures at the group level. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) for urine N v. NI was 0.81 for the weighed record and 0.38 for the diet history. The correlation of EE v. EI was r 0.48 for weighed record and r 0.11 for diet history. In this study the diet history gave the same estimate of mean intake, but the weighed record appeared to perform better in ranking individuals.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Energy, Macronutrient
Tool Type
Diet History
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 Week
Portion Size Measures info
Verbal descriptions of familiar volumes and sizes and by reference to photographs from a Swedish food atlas. Information in Crawley et al. (1988) was used as a source for average portion sizes and typical weights of standard sized foods e.g. biscuits and cakes.
Reporting Method info
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not Reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Cambridge, England
Associated Nutrient Database
McCance & Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 4th edition and supplements with additional recipes and manufacturers' information.
Comparator Validated Against
Doubly Labelled Water


Sample Size
Age of Population

Range: 50-65 years

Mean(SD): 57.5(4.6) years

Female Only
Other Notable Characteristics
Subjects were a part of the EPIC study

Total number of nutrients validated: 1 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Energy
  • Macronutrients: 0
  • Micronutrients: 0
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Doubly Labelled Water Adults Female Only Energy (kcal) -103 573 0.11 (P) -1227 1022
Energy (kJ) -430 2400 0.11 (P) -5134 4274

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Black AE, Welch AA, Bingham SA. Validation of dietary intakes measured by diet history against24 h urinary nitrogen excretion and energy expenditure measuredby the doubly-labelled water method in middle-aged women. British Journal of Nutrition. 2000 Apr 1;83(04):341-54.