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Validation Information: 7 day Estimated Food Diary

Johansson 2008

Comparison of nutrient intake between different dietary assessment methods in elderly male volunteers

Aim: The objective of the study was to compare nutritional intake results obtained from the 4 x 4-day weighed records with those obtained from a food frequency questionnaire, repeated 24-hour recalls, a seven-day food record and a seven-day checklist in elderly men.

Methods: Seventy-five healthy men aged 55-88 years and living at home in Cambridge, UK, took part in the study. Energy and nutrients had means and standard deviations calculated. Misreporting was based on an evaluation of food intake level, calculated as reported energy intake divided by predicted basal metabolic rate. This was in relation to a plausible physical activity level, calculated as the ratio of energy expenditure divided by predicted basal metabolic rate. Statistical significance was assessed via one-way ANOVA.

Results: The nutrient density was higher for protein and potassium for the group with low food intake level values in all dietary assessment methods. For some methods, this was also true for calcium, carotene, iron and vitamin C. All methods yielded similar results.

Conclusions: The present study indicates that selective underreporting exists. Surprisingly, the simplest method, the simplified 24-hour recall, performed as well as more complicated methods.

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Validation Information

Year of Publication

Tool Information

Dietary Exposure Measured
Full Nutrient, Food Groups
Tool Type
Food Diary Estimated
Timeframe Tool Measures info
1 Day
Portion Size Measures info
15 sets of photographs. Subjects could state portion size in other measures if they wished.
Reporting Method info
Usual; Prospective
Format info
Supplements Measured
Not Reported
Administration Method info

Study Information

Study Location
Cambridge, England
Associated Nutrient Database
Not reported
Comparator Validated Against
Weighed Food Diary


Sample Size
Age of Population

Range: 55-88 years

Male Only
Other Notable Characteristics
Population who were healthy enough to live in their homes without external help

Total number of nutrients validated: 14 info

Not all of the nutrients validated in the validation studies are included in the table below, as statistical data was only selected to be displayed for a number of nutrients, this included:

  • Energy
  • Fat
  • Saturated Fat
  • Mono-unsaturated Fat
  • Poly-unsaturated Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Protein
  • Sugar
  • Non‐starch polysaccharides(NSP)
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Retinol
  • Folate
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C
  • Fruit & Vegetables
  • Urinary Nitrogen

To find information on the other validated nutrients please read the validation study.

  • Energy
  • Macronutrients: 7
  • Micronutrients: 6
Comparator Lifestage Sex Nutrient Measured info Mean Difference Standard Deviation info Correlation Coefficient info Cohen's Kappa Coefficient Percentage Agreement Percentage Agreement Categories info Lower Limits of Agreement Upper Limits of Agreement
Weighed Food Diary Elderly Male Only Energy (kcal) 84
Energy (kJ) 350
Protein (g) 2
Fat (g) 6
Carbohydrates (g) 1
Total Sugars (g) -2
Fibre (NSP) (g) -2
Calcium (mg) 3
Iron (mg) -0.8
Retinol (µg) 33
Vitamin C (mg) -3

Some results have been calculated using statistical techniques based on the published data.

For further information on statistical terms click on Statistical tests used in validation studies

All correlations coefficients in the table are unadjusted unless stated otherwise. For adjusted correlation coefficients and other statistical methods used in the study e.g. paired t-tests, please read the validation articles.

  • # Adjusted
  • † Energy adjusted.
  • ‡ For loge-transformed, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes.
  • ^ Adjacent included.
  • ᵟ Participants provided identical responses.
  • (w) = Weighted.

Johansson G. Comparison of nutrient intake between different dietary assessment methods in elderly male volunteers. Nutrition & Dietetics. 2008 Dec 1;65(4):266-71.